STUDY PROGRAM

The WAVES curriculum is built as a two-year program, 4 semesters, each validated by 30 ECTS enabling the students to become proficient in the main applications: urban noise, acoustic insulation, structural control, health monitoring, non-destructive testing and nonlinear acoustical systems. These subjects represent the market of Acoustics and the research activities in this field throughout the world.

The main objective of the Master WAVES is to provide the students expertise in experimental methodology, numerical modeling and theory in order to be able to design, characterize, model and understand acoustical systems and devices.
To this end, it should prepare students to develop creative approaches to solve problems related to identification, application and production of acoustical systems, using fundamental and transdisciplinary knowledge of Acoustics and being able to mobilize various multidisciplinary parties and abilities.
Building on its international nature and on the broad spectrum of Acoustics, the Master WAVES aims to train highly qualified and creative graduates that will become the next-generation scientific executives, with a strong capacity to adapt themselves to new professional contexts, to address ethical, environmental and societal challenges related to Acoustics, and to get involved in the creation of high-technology companies.
The teachings of academic subjects imply both fundamental sciences (mechanics, mathematics) and applied topics (electroacoustic, experimental techniques). These subjects have been well identified to give students the core skills required to be an innovative engineer in acoustics. The educational program is designed to ensure that the WAVES graduates have acquired a triple proficiency in theory, numerical modeling and experimental techniques. The detailed program is reported here. The syllabus splits into 5 main groups:
  • Fundamentals of Acoustics (16 ECTS)
  • Methods for acoustical engineering (14.5 ECTS)
  • Applications of Acoustics (26 ECTS)
  • Advanced topics on Acoustics (25 ECTS)
  • Additional key competencies (8.5 ECTS)

Last semester (S4) is dedicated to the preparation of the Master Thesis as part of an internship (30 ECTS)

Program at a glance

# S1: Coimbra S2: Valencia S3: Marseille
Fundamentals

The objective of the curricular unit is to present and deepen basic knowledge in the area of building physics, in what concerns knowledge and abilities related to building acoustics and vibrations. The scope of the knowledge will be extended in order to enable students to: i) understand the physical phenomena of sound and vibration propagation and the basic principles of insulation; ii) understand the behavior of different materials and constructive solutions, regarding sound and vibration propagation and insulation; iii) know and apply the national legislation on building acoustics; iv) know, in generality, the main tests in building acoustics and for materials and constructive solutions' characterization.

Basic phenomena related to the phenomenology and operation of musical instruments are introduced, including the definitions, and methodologies for understanding the physical models of musical instruments. The acoustic and physical features of the main families of musical instruments are presented.

The aim of the course is to initiate the students in the field of psychoacoustics by training the students so that they are able to do perceptive tests.

The aim of the subject is providing the knowledge and capabilities for generating, manipulating and processing audio signals by using digital signal processing algorithms and techniques.

The objective of the subject is to provide the student with the fundamental knowledge about the generation and propagation of ultrasound, and to train him in the design and specification of ultrasonic equipment, both for applications on non- destructive analysis, or information processing, and on power ultrasound, in the medical, industrial, submarine and communications fields.

The subject introduces the fundamentals and applications of acoustical techniques for underwater communication, detection and characterization of targets and habitats. The student should achieve the technical understanding and use of basic instruments of underwater acoustics: emitting transducers and hydrophones, single elements and arrays, scientificechosounders and imaging SONARs, etc, and all their applications (underwater positioning, acoustical communication, bathymetry maps, habitat mapping, biomass characterization and estimation, ...)

Methods

This course intends to give students relevant knowledge regarding the application of numerical methods to acoustic and heat and mass transfer phenomena. It is also intended to allow the student to become familiar with computational modeling techniques and with the use of advanced computational tools, applied to the study of the phenomena mentioned before both in permaneand transient regime. The skills that the students should acquire are related with the solution of problems and with the construction of computational analysis models.

The initial objective of the curricular unit is to present the main measurement equipment used in noise and vibration tests. The scope of the knowledge will be extended to the main legal and normative aspects in acoustic measurements and to the detailed analysis of different in situ measurements and laboratorial acoustic tests, in order to enable students to: i) know the main metrological aspects; ii) know and apply the appropriate normative when establishing the different test procedures; iii) understand the methodologies to analyse, process the registered data and evaluate/present the results of different acoustic tests and measurements.

The aim of the course is to provide the knowledge and skills to represent real space through graphic representation techniques. In the classroom, students will use computer programs to represent real space in 2D and 3D, to be able to simulate spaces acoustically.

The purpose of this module is to educate students on knowledge and management of data acquisition systems on different buses and interconnection tools for conducting complex measures (instrumentation systems).

The subject introduces students to the field of simulation by means of numerical resolution methods in the field of acoustics, including the Finite Element Method and Finite Differences in the time Domain, focusing on aspects related to numerical modeling, like convergence, stability, boundary conditions and the definition of the mesh.

Applications

This unit aims to provide students the possibility of acquiring skills in the area of non- structural rehabilitation of buildings, in particular with regard to their acoustic and energetic performance. Students should acquire knowledge that enables them to define intervention strategies for the rehabilitation of facades, walls, roofs and floors in order to improve their thermal and acoustic performance; they should also understand the interaction and interdependence between these two specialties. They must be able to identify and propose opportunities for improvement of the energy performance of buildings in terms of its technical and energetic systems.

With this course unit it is intended that the student acquires a set of critical tools and knowledge to help taking, and justifying, technical, methodological and strategic decisions in the context of actions for construction / rehabilitation of buildings and urban structures seeking a "sustainable construction", understood as an integral and relevant parcel of a policy of "sustainable development".

The aim of the subject is providing the knowledge and capabilities for designing rooms (opera houses, conference venues, and so on) from an acoustics standpoint, as well as measuring the acoustic quality of rooms and characterizing materials and devices commonly used for acoustic conditioning.

Sound System Design covers the design and implementation of centralized and distributed sound systems, using either analog or digital signal transmission. This subject goes over concepts related with technical and psycho-acoustic concepts related with audio systems. The students will work with tools like computer simulations for sound design, spectrum analyzers, impedance analyzers, and electro-acoustic transfer functions. Special emphasis is done with the DSP techniques available today for setting-up and optimize audio installations.

This course introduces the students with environmental noise issues due to surface and air transport systems, with the prediction and the perceptive characterization of the related noise sources and with their reduction by means of passive and active methods. The students will learn how to generate noise mapping of urban environments and calculate standard perceptive metrics of the environmental sounds using state-of-the-art numerical tools. They will also learn the theoretical basis and the experimental implementation of different noise reduction methods for the attenuation of low- frequency sounds using active noise control systems in a duct and in a room as well as the abatement of mid- to high-frequency noise using porous resonance absorbers. This unit will include 2 labs on PCs and 4 experimental labs. It is a prerequisite to Sound Wall, one of the projects of Unit 7, on the design of a mock-up for the most efficient sound wall barrier able to protect living area from urban traffic noise.

During previous semester basic knowledges (S1: Unit 2 and Unit 6, S2: Unit 4, 7, 10 and 12) are used and completed to address actual challenges in Non Destructive Evaluation and acoustical imaging. Relying with Unit 4, the complex materials of interest which are both biological (cells, bone, etc.) and industrial (welds, concrete, etc.) are described. Then, special attention is paid to experimental and numerical methods essential for damage identification and imaging. Practical applications are related to ultrasonic inspection in an industrial context (nuclear energy, civil engineering, aeronautics) and to medical diagnosis. Experimental knowledge will be developed with phased array ultrasonic, immersion tanks, and acoustic microscopy.

Advanced

This unit aims to provide students the possibility of acquiring skills in the area of building acoustics, in particular with regard to sound insulation and noise and vibration control. Students should acquire knowledge in advanced prediction tools to apply in the design stage of building acoustic situations and also on experimental alternative tools to approach problems related with the product development. They must be able to identify and propose constructive solutions for applications in design stage of building acoustic situations and also in product development process.

Electroacoustic Systems tackles the main aspects related to loudspeaker analysis, design and testing, with special emphasis on industry needs. It is structured in two blocks: (1) Drivers and (2) Enclosures. The first block involves loudspeaker fundamentals, modelling (equivalent circuit), characteristic curves, testing, vibration, radiation and non-linear behavior, as well as some design guides. The second block involves design for loudspeaker enclosures, including driver selection and design of closed boxes, vented boxes, and passive radiator as well as band-pass enclosures. Geometry, diffraction and cross-filter strategies for two- and three-way solutions are also introduced.

This course aims at deep understanding of the interaction between a vibrating structure of geometry and surrounding fluid. While such situation arises commonly in many case of building acoustics, the underlying physics is much more complex than expected. Nevertheless, the mathematical tools used to solving it are easy to understood and simple to implement. On simple examples, we will present and understand situations such as sound radiation and transmission, fluid-added mass and damping, coincidence frequency, resonance modes, transient regime, far-field radiation and light- fluid approximation. All these principles are easily transposed in building isolation, sound radiation by string instruments, air wing fluttering or acoustics comfort in transports.

Linear Acoustics suffices for describing most of the common situations encountered in day life. In some cases, the nonlinear nature of dynamical systems encountered in acoustics (such as musical instruments and nonlinear energy sinks) is of primary importance and it is necessary to be able to recognize such situations. Similarly, the nonlinear dynamical systems are one way to new and original solutions to the acoustic problem. As there are multiple nonlinearities, many methods exist to solve such problem. Most of it are only tractable for the simplest cases, but they suffice to give the idea. Based on simple examples, this course will introduce the main concepts of: phase plane, bifurcations, oscillation regimes, stability, nonlinear modes and chaos.

This course introduces the fundamental models of wave propagation in fluids and solids. More specific research issues are then addressed, such as the scattering, dissipative effects, the effect of anisotropy and of randomness. Lastly, nonlinear waves are considered, in relation with Unit 3 of S3. The general objective of this course is to provide students with the theoretical tools to address wave phenomena in complex media, for instance metamaterials (Unit 6 of S3). It also provides the foundations for inverse problems and imaging (Unit 5 of S3). Numerical applications of the phenomena will be systematically done, based on the softwares developed by researchers in the Laboratoire de Mécanique et d’Acoustique: Specfem and Prospero.

Acoustic metamaterials are artificial media engineered at the subwavelength scale whose effective properties such as negative refraction that cannot be found in nature. This course introduces asymptotic techniques to unveil dynamic effective parameters in periodic structures with resonant behavior. This makes possible negative effective parameters near resonances, and thus the design of an acoustic flat lens via negative refraction. Transformation acoustics (TA) is a mathematical tool whereby a change of coordinates in the wave equation leads to anisotropic heterogeneous parameters. A paradigm of (TA) is the invisibility cloak used to conceal a region of space to sound waves. Asymptotic techniques will be used to approximate the required material parameters for such an acoustic cloak for pressure waves with a structured medium. The course will also touch upon some extension of acoustic metamaterials to the realm of geophysics for the control of surface seismic waves (structuring soils with forests of trees and boreholes).

Additional competencies

The objective of the course is to initiate students into the world of research in the field of acoustics. To this end, a series of lectures is given by prestigious invited researchers.

Projects will be proposed to small groups of students to be carried out over several weeks, on a subject directly from the concerns of the industrial world. The aim is to concretely prepare students for their future profession, to motivate them by material realization, to encourage teachers from different disciplines to work as a team, or to develop a skills-based approach.

This training allows to become familiar with the project management tools, in order to appropriate them and to generalize their use during the realization of their projects. This training makes it possible to become familiar with the stages of the life cycle of a project; structure the project team and define the roles and responsibilities of the main actors; to acquire project definition, planning, monitoring and closing tools (project charter, project breakdown structure, liability table, work package, Gantt chart (schedule)), risk register and issues, skateholder influence assessment, communication summary plan, project progress.

S1 : COIMBRA (UC)

Acoustics and vibrations in buildings and their envelopes (6 ECTS, fundamentals)

The objective of the curricular unit is to present and deepen basic knowledge in the area of building physics, in what concerns knowledge and abilities related to building acoustics and vibrations. The scope of the knowledge will be extended in order to enable students to: i) understand the physical phenomena of sound and vibration propagation and the basic principles of insulation; ii) understand the behavior of different materials and constructive solutions, regarding sound and vibration propagation and insulation; iii) know and apply the national legislation on building acoustics; iv) know, in generality, the main tests in building acoustics and for materials and constructive solutions' characterization.

S2 : VALENCIA (UPV)

Computer Aided Design in acoustic engineering (3 ECTS, methods)

The aim of the course is to provide the knowledge and skills to represent real space through graphic representation techniques. In the classroom, students will use computer programs to represent real space in 2D and 3D, to be able to simulate spaces acoustically.

S3: MARSEILLE (AMU-ECM)

This semester covers all aspects of noise and non-destructive testing, both theoretical, numerical and experimental. These aspects are designed to be in line with the expectations of the industrial and academic world.

Vibroacoustics and structural acoustics (4 ECTS, advanced)

This course aims at deep understanding of the interaction between a vibrating structure of geometry and surrounding fluid. While such situation arises commonly in many case of building acoustics, the underlying physics is much more complex than expected. Nevertheless, the mathematical tools used to solving it are easy to understood and simple to implement. On simple examples, we will present and understand situations such as sound radiation and transmission, fluid-added mass and damping, coincidence frequency, resonance modes, transient regime, far-field radiation and light- fluid approximation. All these principles are easily transposed in building isolation, sound radiation by string instruments, air wing fluttering or acoustics comfort in transports.